After I had experimented with the aperture, I explored how changing the shutter speed would affect the image. Shutter speed refers to how long the shutter is open for and therefore how much light is let into the lens.
As with the aperture experiment, I kept all of the other exposure settings the same while repeatedly shooting the same objects. This time it was vital to use a tripod to steady the camera as any movement would have blurred the images with longer shutter speeds.
While exposure consists of three elements (aperture, shutter speed and ISO), experimenting with the settings individually helped me to understand what is is each element does and how to change them within my camera.